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Bunions develop from abnormal foot structure and mechanics that places an abnormal pressure on the 1st metatarsal. This leads to stretching of supporting soft tissue structures such as joint capsules and ligaments with the end result being gradual deviation of the 1st metatarsal.
Stiffness and pain of the big toe joint is termed Hallux Rigidus or Hallux Limitus. Hallux is the medical term for the big toe and the terms rigidus and limitus describe the extent to which the toe can move.
A hammertoe is a curling of toe the joints, sometimes affecting one or both joints of the toe. This curling of the toes often leads to rubbing on shoe gear. This abnormal rubbing leads to painful and unsightly toes. Calluses and corns soon follow.
An intermetatarsal neuroma is any irritative process of the common digital nerve branch that supplies the plantar (bottom) of adjacent toes. It most commonly involves the nerve that supplies sensation to adjacent sides of the third and fourth toes, but can also affect other toes of the foot.
A stress fracture is one type of incomplete fracture in bones. It is caused by unusual or repeated stress." This is in contrast to other types of fractures, which are usually characterized by a solitary, severe impact.
In an avulsion fracture, a small piece of bone is pulled off the main portion of the bone by a tendon or ligament. This type of fracture is the result of an injury in which the ankle rolls. Avulsion fractures are often overlooked when they occur with an ankle sprain.
Gout is a type of arthritis (inflammation of the joints) that mostly affects men age 40 and older. It is caused by chronic hyperuricemia--a long-lasting, abnormally high concentration of uric acid in the blood.
When you have diabetes, the circulation of blood to your feet is not as good as it should be. It is harder for the body to fight infections and heal itself. As a result, any infections and sores on your feet can become serious. Without treatment, severe infections can cause the flesh of your foot to die (gangrene).
Thick, yellow toenails are due to nail fungus approximately 60% of the time. Other causes include nail root damage, metabolic disease, psoriasis and eczema. Toenail fungus, also known as onychomycosis, affects millions of people world wide, and is most prevalent in warm climates.
Ingrown toenails are a common ailment in nearly all ages of patients. The inner or outer side of a toenail can cause pressure on the skin. If the pressure is great enough an infection can result. The most common cause of ingrown toenails is improper trimming of the nail.
Warts are a non-cancerous growths of the skin. They are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) . HPV describes a broad category of viruses which cause various infection. We are concerned with a very small subset of the HPV family, specifically, HPV 1, 3, 27, 29 and 57 are known to cause warts on the foot.
By far the most common cause, accounting for 95% of all cases, is abnormal, repetitive stresses placed on the anatomic structures of the foot and leg resulting in injury and inflammation. This condition is known as plantar fasciitis.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a modern and highly effective treatment method: high-energy sound waves are introduced into the painful areas of the body. With this innovative treatment, pathological alterations of tendons, ligaments, capsules, muscles and bones can be eliminated systematically. This technology is especially useful for treating plantar fasciitis.
Charcot foot can occur in a diabetic who has neuropathy (nerve damage) in the foot that impairs the ability to feel pain. Charot foot typically occurs following a minor injury, such as a sprain or stress fracture. The prevalence of Charcotarthropathy ranges from 0.1% to as high as 13%.
Posterior tibial tendonitis is an inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon and its sheath. It affects this tendon as it runs from the inside of the ankle to the arch of the foot. Tendons are fibrous cords that connect muscles to bones.
The peroneal tendons consist of two tendon that arise from the muscles on the outside of the leg just below your knee. The tendons course behind the outside of the fibula(outside ankle bone), then turn and connect to two different areas of the mid foot.
A tarsal coalition is a bone condition in feet that causes decreased motion or absence of motion in one or more of the joints in the foot. The lack of motion or absence of motion is due to abnormal bone, cartilage or fibrous tissue growth across a joint. When excess bone has grown across a joint there is usually little or no motion in that joint.
The most common type of ankle sprain mechanism is an inversion (foot twisting inward) ankle sprain. This is due to the anatomy of the ankle joint being stronger on the inside. This causes our ankle to roll out and our foot to roll under. During this incident, you may hear a “pop”.
The peroneal tendons consist of two tendon that arise from the muscles on the outside of the leg just below your knee. The tendons course behind the outside of the fibula(outside ankle bone), then turn and connect to two different areas of the mid foot.
A tarsal coalition is a bone condition in feet that causes decreased motion or absence of motion in one or more of the joints in the foot. The lack of motion or absence of motion is due to abnormal bone, cartilage or fibrous tissue growth across a joint. When excess bone has grown across a joint there is usually little or no motion in that joint.
Arthritis is a disease characterized by inflammation, deterioration and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints of the foot. Cartilage allows for fluid and smooth motion of joints. When cartilage breaks down or is lost, symptoms such as inflammation and limited mobility develop.
Distraction of joints is very common in the management of an arthritic ankle by European surgeons. The arthrodiastasis procedure is indicated as an alternative to fusion or joint replacement in the younger population.